Energy and adaption

What is energy?

The first and second law

#1 Energy cannot be created or destroyed

#2 As energy is transformed, more and more of it is wasted

Can we condense energy?

Maximum power

The cost of energy

Chart on EROEI based on “EROI of different fuels and the implications for society”
by: Charles A.S.Hall, Jessica G.Lambert, Stephen B.Balogh

Side effects to using energy


Shrinking surplus energy

Shrinking surplus energy: the energy available for economic activities (represented by green bars) is under increasing pressure. This is partly due to exponentially worsening EROEI and resource depletion (both for fossil fuels and rare earth metals for renewables) — and on the other hand due to the exponential growth in maintenance costs for the infrastructure. Note: the height of the bars and curvature of these trends are purely illustrative (together with the end date). The purpose here is to show that these converging trends quite possibly intersect still within the lifetime of people living today. Considering the risks involved this topic would well deserve a decent research (if it hasn’t been done yet).

A modelling example

Schematic for the thermodynamics of an open system. Image from the study: Long-run evolution of the global economy: 1. Physical basis by Timothy J. Garrett

Adaption – new energy resources

Biomass and an evolutionary response




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